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Mediators of a brief hypnosis intervention to control side effects in breast surgery patients
Full Title: Mediators of a brief hypnosis intervention to control side effects in breast surgery patients: Response expectancies and emotional distress.
Objective: The present study was designed to test the hypotheses that response expectancies and emotional distress mediate the effects of an empirically validated presurgical hypnosis intervention on postsurgical side effects (i.e., pain, nausea, and fatigue). Method: Women (n = 200) undergoing breast-conserving surgery (mean age = 48.50 years; 63% White, 15% Hispanic, 13% African American, and 9% other) were randomized to a hypnosis or to an attention control group. Prior to surgery, patients completed assessments of hypothesized mediators (response expectancies and emotional distress), and following surgery, patients completed assessments of outcome variables (pain, nausea, and fatigue). Results: Structural equation modeling revealed the following: (a) Hypnotic effects on postsurgical pain were partially mediated by pain expectancy (p < .0001) but not by distress (p = .12); (b) hypnotic effects on postsurgical nausea were partially mediated by presurgical distress (p = .02) but not by nausea expectancy (p = .10); and (c) hypnotic effects on postsurgical fatigue were partially mediated by both fatigue expectancy (p = .0001) and presurgical distress (p = .02). Conclusions: The results demonstrate the mediational roles of response expectancies and emotional distress in clinical benefits associated with a hypnotic intervention for breast cancer surgical patients. More broadly, the results improve understanding of the underlying mechanisms responsible for hypnotic phenomena and suggest that future hypnotic interventions target patient expectancies and distress to improve postsurgical recovery. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).
Increase Your Reading Comprehension Skills.This hypnosis session will help to bypass many of the limitations that your conscious awareness has imposed&reduce stress while you read.Allowing you to access the knowledge that is your in your inner mind.
Happily Plan and Enjoy Your Stress Free Wedding Day! Use this hypnosis session on a daily basis leading up to your wedding day to experience a wonderful oasis of calm and peace as you are taken on a journey deep into your inner mind.
Control Your Bladder More Effectively With Hypnosis!Do you have an overactive bladder?This specially designed hypnosis session will help you gain control of your bladder using the powerful inner mind to effect your body.
What is happiness? Some would define it in terms of being contented with what you have or are experiencing at the moment. Others would explain it in terms of what they own, where they live, and how much money they make. As a therapist, people frequently tell me that they determine their happiness by how others treat or regard them. Unfortunately, in that case they have completely surrendered their happiness to the whims of others. That is not a condition that I recommend.
However, I am now going to recommend that you consider another approach to happiness. Consider your dominant thoughts....
Can the use of suggestion and imagination improve physiological healing? Controversial studies at the Harvard Medical School have left the allopathic medical community scratching their collective heads. Two separate research projects conducted by a team led by psychologist Carol Ginandes, PhD, indicated that a significant number of patients who combined guided imagery hypnosis and traditional allopathic care tended to heal significantly faster than those who followed only an allopathic regimen. Their findings mirrored similar research involving improving the immune system of sufferers of...
Like many other phobias, a fear of heights can be overcome. I know this personally, because it is a phobia that I suffered most of my adult life. Although I did not realize it until I was in my early 40s, it started when I was only four years old. It was then that I observed by older sister fall off a cliff behind our house in France. My father, with the time was a young airman, and several of his friends were able to rescue her. However, during my teen years I began discovering that I had a very significant hesitancy whenever I was asked to do anything involving heights. During my early...