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Autogenic EMG-controlled functional electrical stimulation for ankle dorsiflexion control.
Our objectives were to develop and test a new system for the potential for stable, real-time cancellation of residual stimulation artefacts (RSA) using surface electrode autogenic electromyography-controlled functional electrical stimulator (aEMGcFES). This type of closed-loop FES could be used to provide more natural, continuous control of lower extremity paretic muscles. We built upon work that has been done in the field of FES with one major technological innovation, an adaptive Gram-Schmidt filtering algorithm, which allowed us to digitally cancel RSA in real-time. This filtering algorithm resulted in a stable real-time estimation of the volitional intent of the stimulated muscle, which then acted as the direct signal for continuously controlling homonymous muscle stimulation. As a first step toward clinical application, we tested the viability of our aEMGcFES system to continuously control ankle dorsiflexion in a healthy subject. Our results indicate positively that an aEMGcFES device with adaptive filtering can respond proportionally to voluntary EMG and activate forceful movements to assist dorsiflexion during controlled isometric activation at the ankle. We also verified that normal ankle joint range of movement could be maintained while using the aEMGcFES system. We suggest that real-time cancellation of both primary and RSA is possible with surface electrode aEMGcFES in healthy subjects and shows promising potential for future clinical application to gait pathologies such as drop foot related to hemiparetic stroke.
Yeom H, Chang YH. J Neurosci Methods. 2010 Aug 14. Dept. of Medical Engineering, Eulji University, Sungnam, Gyeonggi, South Korea; School of Applied Physiology, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, USA; Biomedical Engineering Program, Emory University/Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, USA.
Like eating-related addictions, those involving sexual urges stem from what is a normal and healthy part of life. However, once sexually-related behavior becomes less of a choice and more of an uncontrollable behavior, help is needed.
A man with a significant sexual addiction once came to see me. Apparently, his life had gotten so far out of control that his behavior patterns had ruined many otherwise successful relationships. Of course, this does not count the problems of participating in activities that were medically dangerous and even illegal. In his case, he was addicted to...
When you look in the mirror, do you see you own worst critic? Yes, I know that you are aware of every failing, mistake, and goof that you’ve made during your life. Well, you are not alone. All of us see that person staring back at us. On the other hand, what you are probably not seeing are all the positive things that you have accomplished in your life. My favorite Christmas movie is It’s a Wonderful Life starring Jimmy Stewart and Donna Reid. For me the most memorable quote in the movie is when Clarence the angel sent to help the George Bailey, the main character who is played by...
Helen Keller once said, "What we have enjoyed deeply we can never lose. All that we love deeply becomes part of us." By the time that we have survived only a few years on this planet, most certainly we have experienced some form of grief. It may be something as small as losing a toy or is great as the loss of a parent. Assuredly grief will always be a part of our lives. Although it's painful, in some ways it gives us an affirmation that we are truly alive.
Bernie Siegel summed this up quite nicely. He said, "One cannot get through life without pain... what we can do is choose how to use...