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Glenn Harrold Interview: Motivation for Hypnotherapy
Neural mechanisms of antinociceptive effects of hypnosis
BACKGROUND: The neural mechanisms underlying the modulation of pain perception by hypnosis remain obscure. In this study, we used positron emission tomography in 11 healthy volunteers to identify the brain areas in which hypnosis modulates cerebral responses to a noxious stimulus. METHODS: The protocol used a factorial design with two factors: state (hypnotic state, resting state, mental imagery) and stimulation (warm non-noxious vs. hot noxious stimuli applied to right thenar eminence). Two cerebral blood flow scans were obtained with the 15O-water technique during each condition. After each scan, the subject was asked to rate pain sensation and unpleasantness. Statistical parametric mapping was used to determine the main effects of noxious stimulation and hypnotic state as well as state-by-stimulation interactions (i.e., brain areas that would be more or less activated in hypnosis than in control conditions, under noxious stimulation). RESULTS: Hypnosis decreased both pain sensation and the unpleasantness of noxious stimuli. Noxious stimulation caused an increase in regional cerebral blood flow in the thalamic nuclei and anterior cingulate and insular cortices. The hypnotic state induced a significant activation of a right-sided extrastriate area and the anterior cingulate cortex. The interaction analysis showed that the activity in the anterior (mid-)cingulate cortex was related to pain perception and unpleasantness differently in the hypnotic state than in control situations. CONCLUSIONS: Both intensity and unpleasantness of the noxious stimuli are reduced during the hypnotic state. In addition, hypnotic modulation of pain is mediated by the anterior cingulate cortex.
Anesthesiology. 2000 May;92(5):1257-67. Faymonville ME, Laureys S, Degueldre C, DelFiore G, Luxen A, Franck G, Lamy M, Maquet P. Departments of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine and Neurology, and the Cyclotron Research Centre, University Hospital of Liège, Liège, Belgium. email@example.com
For many people, cigarette smoking began at an early age. Usually this habit starts during a person’s teen years although we have seen it start even earlier. Normally, peer pressure or the influence or the example of parents was somehow involved in the decision to smoke the first cigarette. Also, depending on a person’s age, they may have been influenced by advertising, which was legal at one time in America.
Once this “social reason” for smoking initiated the act, there are two basic reasons why the act of smoking became and addiction. First is the addictive nature of nicotine. Nicotine...
Over the years many people have come to see me because of their anxiety regarding taking tests or exams. This is included people who have anxiety regarding performance-based testing, such as taking a driver's test, or a failed multiple attempts to pass a rule state license exam. Indeed, because of the consequences of failure, the stress related to exam taking can be significant. Yet, after one 90 minute session I cannot think of anyone you has failed their test.
My approach is not very much different than that used by many different coaches and clinical hypnotherapists. One cliché that I...
These are some of my favorite inspirational commitment quotes.
“Stay committed to your decisions, but stay flexible in your approach.” – Anthony Robbins
“There's a difference between interest and commitment. When you're interested in doing something, you do it only when circumstance permit. When you're committed to something, you accept no excuses, only results.” – Author Unknown
“Commitment unlocks the doors of imagination, allows vision, and gives us the "right stuff" to turn our dreams into reality.” – James Womack
“Desire is the key to motivation, but it's determination and...