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Effects of relaxation on psychobiological wellbeing during pregnancy
Full Title: Effects of relaxation on psychobiological wellbeing during pregnancy: A randomized controlled trial
Prenatal maternal stress is associated with adverse birth outcomes and may be reduced by relaxation exercises. The aim of the present study was to compare the immediate effects of two active and one passive 10-min relaxation technique on perceived and physiological indicators of relaxation. 39 healthy pregnant women recruited at the outpatient department of the University Women's Hospital Basel participated in a randomized controlled trial with an experimental repeated measure design. Participants were assigned to one of two active relaxation techniques, progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) or guided imagery (GI), or a passive relaxation control condition. Self-reported relaxation on a visual analogue scale (VAS) and state anxiety (STAI-S), endocrine parameters indicating hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis (cortisol and ACTH) and sympathetic-adrenal-medullary (SAM) system activity (norepinephrine and epinephrine), as well as cardiovascular responses (heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure) were measured at four time points before and after the relaxation exercise. Between group differences showed, that compared to the PMR and control conditions, GI was significantly more effective in enhancing levels of relaxation and together with PMR, GI was associated with a significant decrease in heart rate. Within the groups, passive as well as active relaxation procedures were associated with a decline in endocrine measures except epinephrine. Taken together, these data indicate that different types of relaxation had differential effects on various psychological and biological stress systems. GI was especially effective in inducing self-reported relaxation in pregnant women while at the same time reducing cardiovascular activity.
Something happens that should not have bothered you. You see a car accident, hear a loud noise, or even possibly nothing at all occurs other than you just finished a cup of coffee. However, your body is reacting as if you have received a threat to your life. Your heart is racing, you breathing quickens, and you feel that you are just about to have a heart attack. Yet, you absolutely know that your reaction is illogical and should have never happened. You are having a panic attack.
Experts tend to agree that panic attacks generally occur because deep in your brain you have been programmed...
In general, there are three types of mental health disorders with which I am concerned. The first category, and probably most common, involves disorders related to fears, anxieties, trauma, and phobias. These almost always related to learned patterns. Something happened in their mind and body fell to adapt appropriately. The second category is personality disorders. Again, this involves a person's ability to adapt and adjust to the unknown. A personality is normally considered one's beliefs, values, and behaviors. Together these are reflected as patterns. Once something happens that is...
Occasionally I talk to a person who is excessively shy. They feel very uncomfortable around groups of people as they absolutely are certain that everyone is focused on them – and that it must be because something is wrong with them. This leads to a very stressful situation. Many people who have these feelings have problems sleeping and may even develop numerous stress-related health disorders. When a person suffers from excessive shyness, they often find that they are also limiting their careers and preventing themselves from developing rewarding relationships. Fortunately,for many people...