Int J Clin Exp Hypn. 2007 Jul;55(3):303-17.
Flory N, Salazar GM, Lang EV. Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center - Harvard Medical School. Boston, Massachusetts. USA.
The use of hypnosis during medical procedures has a long-standing tradition but has been struggling for acceptance into the mainstream. In recent years, several randomized-controlled trials with sufficient participant numbers have demonstrated the efficacy of hypnosis in the perioperative domain. With the advancements of minimally invasive high-tech procedures during which the patient remains conscious, hypnotic adjuncts have found many applications. This article describes the procedural environment as well as pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic interventions to reduce distress. Current research findings, controversies in the literature, and safety considerations are reviewed. Implications for clinical practice and training as well as directions for future research are discussed. Obstacles and possible reasons for the slow acceptance of nonpharmacologic interventions, mind-body therapies, and patient-centered approaches are addressed.