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Hypnotherapy To Stop Smoking
Recent development in research and management of cancer anorexia-cachexia syndrome
Cachexia is among the most debilitating and life-threatening aspects of cancer, and is more common in children and elderly patients.
Associated with anorexia, fat and muscle tissue wasting, psychological distress, and a lower quality of life, cachexia arises from a complex interaction between the cancer and the host. This process results from a failure of the adaptive feeding response seen in simple starvation and includes cytokine production, release of lipid-mobilizing and proteolysis-inducing factors, and alterations in intermediary metabolism.
Cytokines play a pivotal role in long-term inhibition of feeding by mimicking the hypothalamic effect of excessive negative feedback signaling from leptin, a hormone secreted by adipose tissue, which is an integral component of the homeostatic loop of body weight regulation. This could be done by persistent inhibition of feeding-stimulatory circuitry including neuropeptide Y. Cachexia should be suspected in patients with cancer if an involuntary weight loss of greater than five percent of premorbid weight occurs within a 3-6-month period. The two major options for pharmacological therapy have been either progestational agents or corticosteroids. However, knowledge of the mechanisms of cancer anorexia-cachexia syndrome has led to, and continues to lead to, effective therapeutic interventions for several aspects of the syndrome. These include antiserotonergic drugs, gastroprokinetic agents, branched-chain amino acids, eicosapentanoic acid, cannabinoids, melatonin, and thalidomide-all of which act on the feeding-regulatory circuitry to increase appetite and inhibit tumor-derived catabolic factors to antagonize tissue wasting and/or host cytokine release. The outcomes of drug studies in cancer cachexia should focus on the symptomatic and quality-of-life advantages rather than simply on nutritional end points, since the survival of cachexia cancer patients may be limited to weeks or months due to the incurable nature of the underlying malignancy. Communication among physicians and other health care professionals provides the patient with a multidisciplinary approach to care. The patient record will be an excellent resource to document a plan of care and patient responses to treatment. Psychological distress and psychiatric disorders are common among cancer patients. These problems are also as common among the family members of people with cancer. The use of psychological and behavioral interventions in cancer is increasing, and recent studies have suggested that some of these techniques may affect quality of life and, perhaps, survival rates. Evaluations of relaxation, hypnosis, and short-term group psychotherapy have suggested some benefit with regard to anorexia and fatigue, although the population most likely to benefit from these interventions has not yet been determined. Because weight loss shortens the survival time of cancer patients and decreases performance status, effective therapy would extend patient survival and improve quality of life.
Dept. of Social and Behavioral Medicine, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Japan.
Do you choose to be ordinary? Of course, we admire heroes in life whether they are military figures, scholars, business people, scientists, or even athletes. What is amazing is that each and every one of those that we look up to have the same 3 pound brain, arms, legs, etc that we have. On top of that, some of the most amazing feats have been accomplished by people with one more disabilities. So, what is your excuse for not being brilliant? I assure you that it probably is weak. In fact, in each and every one of us have inside us a genius and a hero waiting to come out.
When it comes to higher human intelligence, there is curse with which we all live. Our highly developed frontal lobe allows us to anticipate the future and simulate a wide range of potential events. On one hand, this allows us to participate in strategic planning and goal setting as we create our lives. On a more mundane level, these capabilities allow us to do simple task such as walking and driving. On the other hand, when these abilities get out of control they can turn our life into a living hell. Our instinctual drive for self-preservation leads us to identify and seek to avoid any...
It is difficult to live a life without some form of regret. By the time that you reach adolescence, you probably have developed a substantial list of things you wish you hadn’t said, hadn’t done, or failed to say or do. Then by the time you reach your middle age years or even later in life, that list seems to be almost encyclopedic in size. Furthermore, we often have others – who may think that they are well-meaning – who communicate by telling us that the reason that we need to do or say something is to satisfy others. And, if we don’t, we will be sorry later. Yes, parents, teachers, and...