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Autogenic EMG-controlled functional electrical stimulation for ankle dorsiflexion control.
Our objectives were to develop and test a new system for the potential for stable, real-time cancellation of residual stimulation artefacts (RSA) using surface electrode autogenic electromyography-controlled functional electrical stimulator (aEMGcFES). This type of closed-loop FES could be used to provide more natural, continuous control of lower extremity paretic muscles. We built upon work that has been done in the field of FES with one major technological innovation, an adaptive Gram-Schmidt filtering algorithm, which allowed us to digitally cancel RSA in real-time. This filtering algorithm resulted in a stable real-time estimation of the volitional intent of the stimulated muscle, which then acted as the direct signal for continuously controlling homonymous muscle stimulation. As a first step toward clinical application, we tested the viability of our aEMGcFES system to continuously control ankle dorsiflexion in a healthy subject. Our results indicate positively that an aEMGcFES device with adaptive filtering can respond proportionally to voluntary EMG and activate forceful movements to assist dorsiflexion during controlled isometric activation at the ankle. We also verified that normal ankle joint range of movement could be maintained while using the aEMGcFES system. We suggest that real-time cancellation of both primary and RSA is possible with surface electrode aEMGcFES in healthy subjects and shows promising potential for future clinical application to gait pathologies such as drop foot related to hemiparetic stroke.
Yeom H, Chang YH. J Neurosci Methods. 2010 Aug 14. Dept. of Medical Engineering, Eulji University, Sungnam, Gyeonggi, South Korea; School of Applied Physiology, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, USA; Biomedical Engineering Program, Emory University/Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, USA.
Various techniques such as Tai Chi, Yoga, self-hypnosis, and various forms of contemplative care can help people increase their ability to focus and concentrate. The resulting improvements can help athletes, students, surgeons, and others who will greatly benefit. In order to understand how this works, you have to ponder why our day-to-day mental activity makes it hard for us to concentrate.
Generally, the problem with concentration and focus comes from our brain’s problem- solving process. Our ability to perceive or imagine situations needing resolution leads our brain to begin the...
Ever since the Black Death devastated Europe in the 14th century, the mind and body have been considered two separate and distinct entities. Even today, this duality dominates the practice of medicine – and the practice of psychology. Rarely will a physician inquire regarding a patient’s mental state, lifestyle, or spirituality when they come in to resolve a physical condition. Likewise, a psychologist pays little attention to a person’s medical history when dealing with fears and phobias. Even though there are some welcomed and notable exceptions, unfortunately this situation will not change...
Occasionally I talk to a person who is excessively shy. They feel very uncomfortable around groups of people as they absolutely are certain that everyone is focused on them – and that it must be because something is wrong with them. This leads to a very stressful situation. Many people who have these feelings have problems sleeping and may even develop numerous stress-related health disorders. When a person suffers from excessive shyness, they often find that they are also limiting their careers and preventing themselves from developing rewarding relationships. Fortunately,for many people...